Natural Rubber is a Polymer of

Natural rubber is a versatile material that has been used for centuries in various applications. It is a polymer of isoprene, a monomer that is found in the latex sap of certain plants. In this article, we will explore the properties of natural rubber, its production process, and its wide range of uses in different industries.

The Chemistry of Natural Rubber

Natural rubber is a polymer, which means it is made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the case of natural rubber, the monomer is isoprene. Isoprene has the chemical formula C5H8 and is a volatile liquid that is produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against herbivores.

When isoprene molecules are polymerized, they join together to form long chains of natural rubber. The polymerization process occurs when the isoprene molecules undergo a chemical reaction called addition polymerization. This reaction involves the breaking of the double bond in isoprene and the formation of a new bond between the carbon atoms, resulting in a chain of repeating isoprene units.

Properties of Natural Rubber

Natural rubber has several unique properties that make it a valuable material in various industries:

  • Elasticity: Natural rubber is highly elastic, meaning it can be stretched and will return to its original shape when the force is released. This property makes it ideal for applications that require flexibility and resilience.
  • Strength: Despite its high elasticity, natural rubber is also strong and durable. It can withstand significant mechanical stress without breaking or deforming.
  • Water Resistance: Natural rubber has excellent water resistance, making it suitable for use in applications where exposure to moisture is common.
  • Electrical Insulation: Natural rubber is a good electrical insulator, meaning it does not conduct electricity. This property makes it useful in electrical and electronic applications.
  • Chemical Resistance: Natural rubber is resistant to many chemicals, including acids, alkalis, and organic solvents. This resistance makes it suitable for use in environments where exposure to chemicals is expected.

Production of Natural Rubber

The production of natural rubber involves several steps, from harvesting the latex sap to processing it into usable forms:

1. Latex Harvesting

Natural rubber is obtained from the latex sap of rubber trees, primarily Hevea brasiliensis. The latex is collected by making incisions in the bark of the tree and allowing the sap to flow into collection cups. The latex is a milky white liquid that contains about 30-40% rubber particles.

2. Coagulation

Once the latex is collected, it is treated with a coagulating agent to separate the rubber particles from the liquid. Common coagulating agents include acid, lime, and enzymes. The coagulation process causes the rubber particles to clump together, forming a solid mass known as coagulum.

3. Washing and Drying

The coagulum is then washed to remove impurities and excess liquid. It is usually washed multiple times to ensure the purity of the rubber. After washing, the rubber is dried to remove any remaining moisture.

4. Compounding

Once the rubber is dry, it is mixed with various additives to improve its properties and processability. These additives can include vulcanizing agents, accelerators, antioxidants, and fillers. The compounding process ensures that the rubber has the desired characteristics for its intended application.

5. Vulcanization

Vulcanization is a crucial step in the production of natural rubber. It involves heating the rubber compound with sulfur or other vulcanizing agents to cross-link the polymer chains. This cross-linking process gives the rubber its enhanced strength, elasticity, and resistance to heat and aging.

Applications of Natural Rubber

Natural rubber is used in a wide range of applications across various industries:

  • Tires: The largest consumer of natural rubber is the tire industry. Natural rubber provides the necessary grip, durability, and resistance to wear and tear required for tire manufacturing.
  • Automotive Industry: Natural rubber is also used in various automotive components, such as belts, hoses, seals, and gaskets. Its elasticity and resistance to heat and chemicals make it suitable for these applications.
  • Medical Products: Natural rubber is used in the production of medical gloves, catheters, and other healthcare products. Its hypoallergenic properties and flexibility make it ideal for these applications.
  • Industrial Belts and Conveyor Systems: Natural rubber is used in the manufacturing of belts and conveyor systems due to its high strength and resistance to abrasion.
  • Footwear: Natural rubber is commonly used in the production of footwear, including shoes, boots, and sandals. Its elasticity and water resistance make it suitable for different types of footwear.


1. Is natural rubber biodegradable?

Yes, natural rubber is biodegradable. It can be broken down by microorganisms in the environment, making it an environmentally friendly material.

2. Can natural rubber be recycled?

Yes, natural rubber can be recycled. It can be reclaimed and reused in various applications, including the production of new rubber products.

3. What are the environmental impacts of natural rubber production?

The production of natural rubber can have environmental impacts, particularly in regions where rubber plantations replace natural forests. Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and soil degradation are some of the concerns associated with rubber cultivation. However, sustainable practices and certifications, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, aim to mitigate these impacts.

4. How does natural rubber compare to synthetic rubber?

Natural rubber and synthetic rubber have different properties and applications. Natural rubber offers superior elasticity and resilience, while synthetic rubber can be tailored to specific requirements, such as increased chemical resistance or temperature stability. The choice between natural and synthetic rubber depends on the intended application and the desired properties.

5. Are there any alternatives to natural rubber?

There are several alternatives to natural rubber, including synthetic rubbers such as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polybutadiene rubber (BR). Additionally, plant-based alternatives, such as guayule rubber and dandelion rubber, are being developed as sustainable alternatives to natural rubber


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